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阅读文章的段落结构

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阅读文章的段落结构 一般来说,每一类文体或每一位 作者都遵循着大体一致的组织原则。 了解这些原则就可以加深对文章的 理解和加快阅读速度。而文章是由段 落组成的,因此,理解文章应从理解 每一段的段落结构开始。因为六级阅 读的篇章不长,因此理解段落的结构 对阅读有很大的作用,可以快速地找 到中心思想和具体的事实与细节。一 般有以下几种结构: 一、时间顺序 事件的发生、发展过程都是有时 间的。在头脑中有了一个明确的时间 顺序,也就是事件的连续性,有助于

快速地理解和抓住中心思想。例如: A German small, hand-propelled the

submarine,

Brand-taucher, sank in 1851 in sixty feet of water , with her

captain ,Wilhelm Bauer, and two crew members aboard. Her hull immediately began to collapse

under the pressure of the sea. CaptainBauer, who had built the tiny craft, knew that if he could keep his two companions from panicking while allowing the water to rise steadily inside her, the interior and exterior pressure would equalize

and they would be able to open the hatch and got out. They did. time cues: before, after, next, then, once, until now, early, later, previously,etc 二、地点顺序 一切事件的发生、发展过程都有不同 的地点,把这些地点联系起来,同样 有助于快速地抓住中心思想,找到具 体的事实与细节。 spatial cues: next to, to the left, in front of, behind, etc. 三、事件的重要性的顺序 有些段落的细节构成常常是次 要的放在前面,重要的放在最后。了 解重要性的先后次序同样有助于我

们快速地找到并抓住中心思想。 comparative cues: more important, less important, greater, lesser, etc. 四、对比法 文章中为了描述一种不熟悉的事物 或观念,常常把它们与我们所熟悉的 事物或观念想对比,或者把过去的事 物与现在的事物相对比。如果熟悉作 者的这种笔法,有助于使我们快速地 捕捉到中心意思和具体细节。下面的 例子中,有三个方面进行了比较: While there are many

differences between high school and college , I'd have to say that the most important ones all involve

freedom. Everyone has to attend high school, at least until tenth grade, so very often you find classes where the students aren't serious about learning. College is exactly the opposite. People are there voluntarily because they want to learn and improve themselves. As a result college students are much more serious and interested.

Another major difference is that colleges don't enforce arbitrary rules. In high school you need a pass to be in the hallway during class, and you can't leave a classroom without

permission. On the other hand , college students can go where they please. 五、因果关系 在说明文或议论文中,事物的因 果关系常被用来作为展开段落的方 法。先讲原因,后给结果或者是先给 结果,后讲原因。还有一些段落在原 因显而易见的情况下可以只集中说 明结果;相反,还有一些段落则只涉 及原因,例如: My grandfather's farm has become much easier to manage in recent years. His prize Holstein cows, for example , are now milked by

automatic pumps rather than by hand. Also, the eggs his hens lay are hatched in incubators instead of by the hens themselves. The

temperature and humidity in the hen houses are controlled by

thermostats, not by Nature' s whim; and the amount of food his chickens get each day is determined by a computer rather than by a

farmhand's estimates. All that is left for grandfather to go , he jokes, is to sit back and pay the huge electric bills. 常见的标引过的信号词有:because,

since, as a result, is caused by, due to, consequently, for this reason, so, therefore, lead to 等 六、分类 分类是根据事物的特点分别归 类。这样组合段落的目的是为了分清 每一种类的性质。例如: In ferreting the interests of people in space, we are aware that there are probably three reasons. Firstly, it is a plan of looking for other places to hold on the this

overcrowded

population

earth. Secondly, it is the curiosity of mankind to urge the scientists for

the research work, because they desire too eagerly the coming of the day when they can travel freely in space. Thirdly, we are reminded of the mineral sources which are not sufficient to provide for the needs on the earth, so we try every effort to go to other planets in the hope for searching for new resources. 七、一般到个别 大多数的段落以主题句开头,开 门见山,点明主题,然后给出具体细 节,或是用理由和实例来论证主题。 例如: My ambition is to go to college,

but my environment does not allow me to do so. My father has been in some difficulty in supporting me even in the middle school, so it is certainly a greater difficulty for him to pay my expenses in college. And I have five brothers in schools. If I go to college, the burden will be too heavy for my father. Moreover, I am poor in science, and perhaps this will prevent me from being successfully assigned the entrance of a college. 八、个别到一般 这种段落是先给出具体细节,或 是以理由和实例开头,而后用概述全

段意思的一般性评论作为段落结尾。 此外,还有定义法,这种方式是 对某些词、术语或抽象概念下定义。 使用段落下定义往往先把一个词限 定为总属词类的一项,再把这个词项 和同类中的其他项目相区别。

句、段、篇章的衔接特点

1. 逻辑衔接: 1) 表示时间关系的衔接词: first, in the first place, since then, thereafter, there fore, lately, later, meanwhile, at last. 2) 表示空间关系的衔接词: beyond, above, under, nearby, outside, in here, across, close to,

on(to)the left(right), ahead of, in front of, above, across, across, from, adjacent to, against, around, at the bottom, before, behind, below, beneath, between, beyond, close at hand, close to down, far, farther, in the center of, in the distance, in the middle of, nearby, near to, next to, on the opposite side, opposite to, on top of , over, under, up,etc. 3) 表示解释的衔接词: Now, in addition, for, in this case, furthermore, in fact, in this case, furthermore, that is to say, in fact. 4) 表示强调的衔接词: Indeed, certainly, indeed, above all, surely, most important, above all. 5) 表示举例的衔接词 For example, for instance, for one thing, for another, to illustrate, one

example is, to begin with, first, second, furthermore, besides, in addition, moreover, finally, in conclusion, in summary, also, a case in point, as an illustration, incidentally, namely, that is. 6) 表示递进或补充的衔接词: in addition,furthermore,also, moreover,yet, besides, again, what’s more, another, etc. 7) 表示列举和顺序的衔接词 first, second, third, afterward(s), meanwhile, thereafter 在那以后)last, ( , finally, eventually, to begin with, in the first place, etc. 8) 用以表示比较和对比的衔接词: like, likewise, unlike, similarly, in the same way, on the other hand, compare with, by comparison, in contrast to, on the contrary, but, so

despite, yet, instead, while, whereas, however, nevertheless, although, even though, conversely, different from, equally important, in spite of, instead, in the same manner, still, etc. 9) 表示让步的衔接词: although, nevertheless, of curse, after all, clearly, still, yet 10) 用以表述因果关系的衔接词: because, since, as, seeing that, the reason why…because of, on account of due to, so, thus, hence, therefore, accordingly, consequently, so that, as a result of, in consequence of, result in, result from, lead to, so…as to, owing to, to have an effect on, for the reason, in this way 11) 用以表示总结的衔接词: to sum up, finally, in conclusion, at last, in short,in a word,in the long run,

in summary, on the whole, as has noted, etc. 12)表示类别的衔接词: To divide…into, to classify…into, group…into, to fall into classes, there are…kinds(types, groups, classes, categories, sorts ) of, according to, in terms of, depending on, at the level of. 了解并掌握起逻辑衔接作用的 衔接词的意义十分重要, 衔接词的意义十分重要,将对阅读速 度的提高和阅读内容的准确把握有 极大的帮助。 极大的帮助。实例请参阅所举例子中 的黑体字。 的黑体字。衔接词还有助于理清复杂 句子的关系和把握作者的观点、 态 句子的关系和把握作者的观点 、 度。 2. 语法衔接: 语法衔接指利用某些语法手段,

如,动词时态、代词的语法形式及照 应、提袋、省略、*行结构等达到衔 接上下文的目的。 对于以说明文和议论文为主要体 裁四阅读而言,语法衔接手段中的照 应尤为重要。照应手段主要是人称照 应和指示照应。通过恰当的使用人称 代词和指示代词以及物主限定词和 指示限定词,达到语篇意义的连贯。 3.词汇衔接:




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